Yüksek İrtifa Hastalıkları

 

Yüksek irtifaya çıkıldığında, oksijen basıncı azalır, her nefeste alınan oksijen miktarı azalır. Çok yukarıya çok hızlı çıkılırsa sorunlar ortaya çıkabilir. 

Akut Dağ Hastalığı: 
Yükseklik arttıkça oksijenin ve basıncın azalmasıyla birlikte oksijenin vücuda girmesi azalır, “hypoxia” gelişir. 2400-2500 m. ye çıkıldığında ilk 24 saat içinde başlayabilir. 
Belirtileri; baş ağrısı, alışılmadık bitkinlik, mide bulantısı, kusma, iştah kaybı, uyuma güçlüğü, aktivite sırasında solunum güçlüğü ve psikolojik yıpranma. 
Tedavi; belirtiler ortadan kaybolana kadar en az 400-500m. inip dinlenerek bol bol su içilmeli. Kendini iyi hissedince tekrar çıkılabilir. 

Yüksek İrtifa Akciğer Ödemi; 
ortam basıncı azaldıkça damar içi basıncı artar. Damarlardaki basınç akciğerlerin basıncından fazla olur ve damarlardan akciğerlere kan geçer. Yaklaşık 4200m nin üstüne çıkıldığında ilk 24-48 saat içinde başlayabilir. 
Belirtileri; Öksürük, hırıltılı nefes, göğüs ağrısı, öksürükte kan gelmesi, çok hızlı kalp ritmi, isteksizlik, kişilik bozukluğu. 
Tedavi; en az 500m alçalıp 2-3 gün bekleyip devam edilebilir. 

Yüksek İrtifa Beyin Ödemi; 
Beyindeki damarlardan kan sızar ve beyne geçer, beyin şişer. Belirtileri; Şiddetli baş ağrısı, kişilik değişikleri, “ataxia” düz çizgide bacakları bitişik yürüyemez, koma. 
Tedavi; hasta çıkışa devam edemez mutlaka indirilmelidir. 

Yüksek İrtifa Hastalıklarının Önlenmesi; 
2500-3000m nin üzerindeyken vücudun uyum sağlayabileceği hızda yükselmek gerekir. Bir önceki gece uyunan yerden en fazla 300m yükseklikte uyunmalı. Bol bol su içilmeli. Karbonhidrat zengini az yağlı yiyecekler yenmeli.

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