Dünya ve türkiye'de oluşumları ve konumlarıyla dağlar

 

Dünyada ve Türkiye'de Oluşumları ve Konumlarıyla DAĞLAR
I- Dağ nedir?
a) Dağ, insanla tabiat arasında ki mücadelenin en yoğun yapıldığı yerdir. Bir ÇiN ATASÖZÜ'ne göre dağ en yüce şeydir. Başka bir deyişle dağ, önümzde yükselen ve içine girdiğim zaman beni kendisinden bir parça yapan yüce bir bütündür. Dağ, yeryuvar üzerinde yeralan çok çeşitli coğrafi ünitelerden; plato, ova, havza gibi ünitelerden biridir. Coğrafi bir yaklaşımla; 15 km. lik bir mekan ünitesi üzerinde yeralan nisbi yükseltinin 600 m'yi bulduğu veya geçtiği yükselti ünitelerini DAĞ olarak tanımlayabiliriz. Bir başka coğrafi tanımla da, yükselti ile beraber eğim değerlerinin % 40'ı geçtiği relief parçasını DAĞ olarak nitelendirebiliriz. Dağ tanımı konusunda görüldüğü gibi, çok çeşitli tarifler varsa da, biz burada yani dağcılıkta hemen tüm bunların ortalaması olan şu tarifi kullanıyoruz. Dağ oturduğu zeminden en az birkaç yüz metre yüksek, eğimli yamaçları ile çevresine hakim ve oldukça geniş alan kaplayan coğrafi bir ünitedir.
b)Dağ tipleri: Dağlan, şekilleri itibariyle 3'e ayır- maktayız.
I- Herhangi bk sıraya bağlı olmayan TEK DAĞLAR,
II- SIRADAĞLAR
III- KÜTLESEL DAĞLAR
Bu tiplere ülkemizden örnek vermek gerekirse, genelde volkanik kökenli ya da aşınmaya karşı dirençle kısmen yüksekliğini korumuş olan Erciyes, Ağn, Süphan, Nemrut, Uludağ, Honaz, Akdağ, Kazdağ aynca ve Alemdağ tek dağ birimlerini oluştururlar.
İkinci tipte yeralan sıradağlara gelince; Toroslar ve Kuzey Anadolu (= Doğu Karadeniz) Dağlan Alp Orojenez (Alp Dağlan Oluşumu) kuşağının bir parçasını oluştururken, kuşkusuz bu gruplar içinde gerçek birer sıradağ karakterini gösteren üniteler olarak kuzeyde Rize ve Soğanlı Dağlarını, Toroslarda Bolkar-Aladağ sırasını, Batı Anadolu'da Boz-dağlar, Aydın Dağlan ve Sultan Dağlarını örnek gösterebiliriz. Tek dağlar ile sıradağlar arasında kalan üçüncü bk tip olaraksa, kütlesel dağlar bulunur. Özellikle Doğu Anadolu'da daha yaygın bu tip olarak ortaya çıkan kütlesel dağlar, Alp Orojenezi esnasında Doğu Anadolu'nun yanlardan gelen basınçlarla sıkışmasından oluşan kınklar ve kıvnmlar sonucu şekillenmişlerdir. Bunlara örnek olarak en başta Cilo Dağlarının merkezi kısmına rastlayan Hakkari Dağlık Kütlesi verilebilir. Yine aynı bölge içinde Şerafettin, Şakşak, Karasu-Aras Dağlan bu tipin diğer örnekleri olarak verilebiliriz.

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